Peraturan Menteri Pertanian Republik Indonesia Nomor 70/Permentan/Sr.140/10/2011 Tentang Pupuk Organik, Pupuk Hayati Dan Pembenah Tanah. Ditetapkan di Jakarta pada tanggal 25 Oktober 2011.
Diundangkan di Jakarta pada tanggal 26 Oktober 2011. Berita Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 2011 Nomor 664.
Naskah lengkap Permentan Nomor: 70/Permentan/Sr.140/10/2011 lihat di sini.
Syarat mutu pupuk terdapat pada Lampiran 1 lihat di sini.
Peraturan yang terdahulu tentang pupuk organik :
Permentan Nomor: 28/Permentan/SR.130/5/2009 lihat di sini.
Permentan Nomor: 02/Pert/HK.060/2/2006
Sumber peraturan pupuk dapat ditengok di sini
Nano-science coupled with nano-technology has emerged as possible cost-cutting measure to prodigal farming and environmental clean-up operations. It has ushered as a new interdisciplinary field by converging various science disciplines, and is highly relevant to agricultural and food systems. Environmental Protection Agency of USA defined nanotechnology as the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1-100 nm, where unique physical properties make novel applications possible. By this definition all soil-clays, many chemicals derived from soil organic matter (SOM), several soil microorganisms fall into this category. Apart from native soil-materials, many new nanotech products are entering into soil system, some of which are used for agricultural production and some others for many other purposes.
Nano-science (also nanotechnology) has found applications in controlling release of nitrogen, characterization of soil minerals, studies of weathering of soil minerals and soil development, micro-morphology of soils, nature of soil rhizosphere, nutrient ion transport in soil-plant system, emission of dusts and aerosols from agricultural soil and their nature, zeoponics, and precision water farming. In its stride, nanotechnology converges soil mineralogy with imaging techniques, artificial intelligence, and encompass bio molecules and polymers with microscopic atoms and molecules, and macroscopic properties (thermodynamics) with microscopic properties (kinetics, wave theory, uncertainty principles, etc.), to name a few.
Some of the examples include clinoloptolite and other zeolite based substrates, and Fe-, Mn-, and Cu- substituted synthetic hydroxyapatites that have made it possible to grow crops in space stations and at Antarctica. This has eliminated costs of repeated launching of space crafts. A disturbing fact is that the fertilizer use efficiency is 20-50 percent for nitrogen, and 10-25 percent for phosphorus (<1% for rock phosphate in alkaline calcareous soils). With nano-fertilizers emerging as alternatives to conventional fertilizers, build ups of nutrients in soils and thereby eutrophication and drinking water contamination may be eliminated. In fact, nano-technology has opened up new opportunities to improve nutrient use efficiency and minimize costs of environmental protection. It has helped to divulge to recent findings that plant roots and microorganisms can directly lift nutrient ions from solid phase of minerals (that includes so-called susceptible (i.e., easily weatherable, as well as non-susceptible minerals).
Source: Mukhopadhyay et al. 2009. Nanoscience and Nano-Technology: Cracking Prodigal Farming.
Schematic representation of the experimental setup, showing roots of wheat seedlings penetrating the glass media and the sampling procedure using 2 ml syringe.
Recent research has proven that higher plants can utilize amino acids as nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) sources. Most studies have focused on single amino acids with or without inorganicN, but a range of amino acids may be expected under conditions where the main N input derives from turnover of organic N sources. This study investigated the uptake of multiple amino acids by plant roots and further the active versus passive uptake was determined. Under minimum microbial activity conditions, seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. ‘Baldus’) were exposed to a series of different concentrations of seven mixed amino acids solutions. Samples of the depleted solutions were periodically collected over a period of ten hours to measure the concentration of amino acids. For all tested amino acids passive uptake was a minor contribution compared to the total uptake. The uptake rates of the amino acids were well described by single Michaelis- Menten kinetic equations with R2 ranging from 0.87 to 0.96. All of the tested amino acids showed a similar uptake pattern.Wheat plants had the highest affinity (lowest Km values) for glutamine followed by tryptophan, alanine, arginine, glycine, and serine. The Vmax values for amino acids uptake by wheat ranged from 2.26 for tryptophan to 16.6 ìmol g.1 root FW h.1 in case of serine.
This study reports, for the first time the simultaneous uptake of multiple amino acids in important agricultural crops. The simultaneous uptake of the six mixed amino acids was dependent on the outer concentration and not on the amino acid type . The uptake kinetics for the six amino acids showed similar trends, a results that agrees with the conclusion of Fischer et al. (1998) that plants contain multiple sets of amino acid transport proteins and that there are also a large number of general amino acid transporters, which can transport many different amino acids. The finding of multiple amino acids uptake also agrees with the expectations of Okumoto et al. (2002) that multiple transporters with differing kinetic characteristics are responsible for import of amino acids into seeds since this action could allow the growing seed to adapt to varying N-supply and alteration in amino acids available.
Ref: A. El-Naggar, A. de Neergaard, A. El-Araby & H. Hogh-Jensen (2009): Simultaneous Uptake of Multiple Amino Acids by Wheat, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 32:5, 725-740
Oleh: Nasih Widya Yuwono
Bangkai yang berserakan di atas lahan tentu menimbulkan pemandangan yang tidak sedap, aroma bau busuk yang menyengat, kerumunan lalat dan melahirkan belatung2 yang rakus mengoyak. Yang paling mengerikan, bangkai menjadi sarang pembiakan mikrobia pathogen. Upaya menyingkirkan bangkai dari lingkungan secara sistematik dalam tempoh yang sesingkat-singkatnya diperlukan untuk mencegah ancaman terhadap kesehatan tersebut. Demikianlah cara pandang kebanyakan kita atas bangkai.
Warga dan prajurit membakar sapi yang mati akibat awan panas Gunung Merapi (Foto: okezon.com)
Saya ingin menunjukkan cara berpikir yang lain. Tahukah anda sisa hewan tersebut dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pupuk organik ?
Dengan menguraikan bangkai menjadi asam amino atau unsur hara terlarut, maka kita dapatkan pupuk organik hewani. Bangkai tersusun sebagian besar berupa air dan senyawa protein. Jika terurai, maka dihasilkan bahan yang kaya dengan unsur N (nitrogen). Unsur nitrogen inilah yang paling banyak diserap tanaman untuk pertumbuhannya.
Proses penguraian bangkai dapat dikerjakan secara mekanik (fisik), mikrobiologi, atau kimia.